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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
  Table of Contents    
CASE REPORT  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 282-285
 

Hemangiolymphangioma of buccal mucosa: A rare case report


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Mahe Institute of Dental Science and Hospital, Puducherry, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mahe Institute of Dental Science and Hospital, Puducherry, India
3 Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Institute of Dental Science and Hospital, Puducherry, India

Date of Submission14-Feb-2017
Date of Acceptance13-Jun-2017
Date of Web Publication18-Aug-2017

Correspondence Address:
Selvamani Manickam
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Mahe Institute of Dental Science and Hospital, Mahe, Puducherry
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_28_17

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   Abstract 

Vascular anomalies are mainly classified under two headings, i.e. under vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Hemangioma and lymphangioma are examples for such a vascular anomalies. Malformations may be seen in different combinations of vascular elements, and histologically these vessels may be filled with blood and named lymphangiohemangioma or hemangiolymphangioma according to the dominant tissue structure present. It is a rare developmental anomaly. This paper reports a case of lymphangiohemangioma in a 21-year-old female patient.


Keywords: Hemangioma, lymphangiohemangioma, lymphangioma, vascular anomalies


How to cite this article:
Manickam S, Sasikumar P, Kishore B N, Joy S. Hemangiolymphangioma of buccal mucosa: A rare case report. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2017;21:282-5

How to cite this URL:
Manickam S, Sasikumar P, Kishore B N, Joy S. Hemangiolymphangioma of buccal mucosa: A rare case report. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Jul 24];21:282-5. Available from: https://www.jomfp.in/text.asp?2017/21/2/282/213205



   Introduction Top


Vascular anomalies are mainly classified under two headings, i.e. under vascular tumors and vascular malformations according to the cellular turnover, histology and clinical findings.[1] Hemangioma is usually seen during infancy and childhood, occurring in 4%–10% of Caucasian infants. Hemangiomas are generally noted within the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. However, they are wide variability in this timing.[2] Hemangiomas mostly occur in the female. The majority of hemangiomas involve the head and neck. However, there are rare in the oral cavity.[3] The hemangioma may present with a macular, telangiectatic appearance. They are classified mainly cavernous and capillary types.[4] It could be seen in the cutaneous, mucosal, intramuscular or intraosseous.[5],[6]

Lymphangioma is considered as a benign hamartomatous tumor of lymphatic vessels. It is widely considered as a developmental and congenital lesion rather than a true neoplasia.[1] Lymphangiomas are usually noted at birth or within 2 years of life. Most commonly occur in the cervicofacial region, axilla/chest, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, buttock and perineum. The overlying skin is usually normal or may have a bluish hue.[2] Lymphangioma is classified by the diameter of the vessels into capillary lymphangioma, cavernous lymphangioma and cystic lymphangioma.[1]

Malformations may be seen in different combinations of vascular elements, such as lymphatic and venous endothelium and cannot be identified as purely one or the other entities. Histologically these vessels may be filled with blood, a mixed hemangiolymphangioma and a rare developmental anomaly. These mixed vascular malformations are named as lymphangio-hemangioma or hemangiolymphangioma according to the dominant tissue structure.[6],[7],[8],[9] Here, we present a patient with a hemangiolymphangioma of the buccal mucosa.


   Case Report Top


A 21-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of the Mahe Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Mahe, Union Territory of Puducherry, India, in the month of March 2016, with the complaint of reddish bluish swelling over the left inner side of cheek after an accidental cheek bite 7 days back. The patient gave a history of similar episodes of cheek biting and resultant bleeding occasionally. No history of gross change in the size of the swelling was reported. Patient's mother had consulted a pediatric surgeon when she was 5 years of age after noticing mild swelling of the left side of her face. She was advised to be kept on follow-up and suggested that the lesion would regress with age. Past medical and family history was noncontributory. Extraoral examination revealed slight facial asymmetry on the left side [Figure 1] with asymmetric nasolabial folds on smiling. Facial muscle movements were normal; however, the imbalance in facial animation was apparent. On intraoral inspection, a solitary reddish bluish swelling with the translucent yellow surface was seen on the left buccal mucosa measuring approximately 2 cm × 1 cm in dimension extending superior-inferiorly from the occlusal plane, 1 cm from the retromolar trigone, and 2 cm from the left corner of the mouth in relation to 34, 35, and 36. The surface of the lesion was irregular with indentation of teeth noted, and areas of clear fluid filled multiple small vesicles of varied sizes were seen 1.5 cm superiorly from the upper border of the lesion [Figure 2]. On palpation, the lesion was extending in submucosal plane and was not attached to the skin; soft in consistency, slightly tender, nonindurated, nonpulsatile and surrounding mucosa appears normal. A left submandibular lymph node was palpable, measuring 1 cm × 1 cm, movable but nontender. A provisional diagnosis of traumatic hematoma was made with differential diagnosis of lymphangioma and hemangioma was given. After taking consent from the patient, surgical excision was planned. The patient underwent an uneventful excision under local anesthesia in proper aseptic conditions. No obvious feeder vessel was identified during surgery. The surgical site was closed primarily, and the excised specimen was sent for a histopathological examination. Gross specimen was soft in consistency and reddish in color and approximately of size 2 cm × 1.5 cm in dimension.
Figure 1: Clinical photograph of patient showing asymmetry of left cheek

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Figure 2: Preoperative Intraoral picture of left buccal mucosa showing swelling and pinhead-sized, clear vesicles along with reddish exophitic masses

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Hematoxyline and eosin stain section reveals para keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and underlying moderately collagenous connective tissue stroma. The connective tissue showed numerous dilated lymphatic's containing lymph. Many channels are also found with blood cells. Muscles fibers are seen deeper in the connective tissue stroma. Histopathological features suggestive of hemangiolymphangioma was made [Figure 3]. The patient is on continuous follow-up and no recurrence was noted till date.
Figure 3: (a and b) Photomicrograph (H & E, stain ×10) reveals stratified squamous epithelium with juxta epithelial stroma showing numerous vessels spaces which are filled with either blood cells or lymphatic fluids. (c) Photomicrograph (H & E, stain ×10) showing dilated vessels filled with RBC's along with few cross sections of muscle bundles. (d) Photomicrograph (H & E, stain ×10) showing numerous vessels spaces which are filled with lymphatic fluids

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   Discussion Top


Vascular anomalies are divided into two primary biological categories: vasoproliferative or vascular neoplasms and vascular malformation by International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies.[1] The key difference between the two types is whether there is increased or decrease endothelial cell turnover, based on histopathology.[4],[10] Vasoproliferative neoplasms have increased endothelial cell turnover, while vascular malformations do not have increased endothelial cell turnover.[3] Instead, vascular malformations are structural abnormalities of the veins, arteries, capillaries and lymphatic vessels.[3],[11]

Most of the vascular anomalies are comprised Hemangiomas. Usually, seen in relation to the head and neck and are the most common tumors of infancy. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations may appear to be very similar but their course and treatment are different. Hemangiomas appear in the first few weeks of life, presents a rapid growth (proliferative) phase which usually lasts 6–10 months, followed by gradual involution, i.e., regress spontaneously over time.[12] Structurally, blood vessels are incomplete in hemangiomas, and they are surrounded by hyperplastic cells.[13] Vascular malformations are anomalies of blood vessels which present from birth even though they might not be apparent and persist throughout life.[12]

Vascular malformations do not show active proliferation, but they consist of ecstatic vessels of either one of the vein, capillaries, arteries, lymphatic vessels or combinations.[13] Lymphangiomas are an abnormality of the lymphatic system, which developed from sequestration of the primitive lymphatic cells. Vessels are capable of accumulating fluids. On the other hand, vessels do not anastomose with bigger lymphatic vessels; therefore, the lymphatic blockage may lead to the cystic appearance of lymphangioma.[14]

Very few cases have been reported in regard to lymphangiohemangioma or hemangiolymphangioma [Table 1]. Yarmand et al. presented a case of 23-year-old male with a chief complaint of swelling of the buccal mucosa with clinical presentation was pebbly, vesicle-like and the so-called “frog-egg” or “tapioca-pudding” appearance which is similar to our case. Secondary hemorrhage into the lymphatic spaces may cause some of these “vesicles” to become purple.[1]
Table 1: Case reports on hemangiolymphangioma published by different authors

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According to the clinical features, age and the location of the occurrence, pyogenic granuloma could be the differential diagnosis. Pyogenic granuloma can present with clinical appearances, ranging from a sessile lesion to an elevated mass. It can appear deep red to reddish-purple in color and present with wide clinical appearances, ranging from a sessile lesion to an elevated mass. In contrast, hemangioma has more plum, histiocytoid, endothelial cell proliferation without an acute inflammatory cell infiltrate.[15]

In the present case, histopathological features did not show inflammatory cell infiltration in the stroma, and the combination of both lymphatic vessels and capillary vessels filled with red blood cells concluded the diagnosis of hemangiolymphangioma.


   Conclusion Top


Hemangiolymhangioma is rare in the oral cavity, and only a few cases reported till date. All suspected cases should be appropriately evaluated to rule out bony, intracranial and systemic involvements. However, surgical excision is the mainstay of the treatment. The patient should be followed long term to rule out any recurrence.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Yarmand F, Seyyedmajidi M, Shirzad A, Foroughi R, Bakhshian A. Lymphangiohemangioma of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol 2016;28:358-61.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Marler JJ, Mulliken JB. Current management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Clin Plast Surg 2005;32:99-116, ix.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Hashemipoor M. Rare cavernous haemangioma of the oral cavity with numerous phleboliths. J Oral Health Oral Epidemiol 2012;1:46-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mulliken JB, Glowacki J. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: A classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg 1982;69:412-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.
Kocer U, Ozdemir R, Tiftikcioglu YO, Karaaslan O. Soft tissue hemangioma formation within a previously excised intraosseous hemangioma site. J Craniofac Surg 2004;15:82-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Sobhana CR, Beena VT, Soni A, Choudhary K, Sapru D. Hemangiolymphangioama of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case and review of literature on treatment aspect. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2012;3:190-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
7.
Kim SS. Intraosseous hemangiolymphangioma of the mandible: A case report. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003;29:182-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hunchaisri N. Hemangiolymphangioma of the floor of mouth: A case report and literature review. J Med Health Sci 2013;20:4-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Jian XC. Surgical management of lymphangiomatous or lymphangiohemangiomatous macroglossia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005;63:15-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Mulliken JB, Glowacki J. Classification of pediatric vascular lesions. Plast Reconstr Surg 1982;70:120-1.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.
Van Aalst JA, Bhuller A, Sadove AM. Pediatric vascular lesions. J Craniofac Surg 2003;14:566-83.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.
Neville BW. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kohout MP, Hansen M, Pribaz JJ, Mulliken JB. Arteriovenous malformations of the head and neck: Natural history and management. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;102:643-54.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.
Vasconcelos M, Santos B, Cristina L, Lemos P, Ribeiro B, Iglesias D, et al. Orallymphangioma: Case report. Rev Sul Bras Odontol 2011;8:352-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Jafarzadeh H, Sanatkhani M, Mohtasham N. Oral pyogenic granuloma: A review. J Oral Sci 2006;48:167-75.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

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    Tables

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