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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 239-245
Analysis of the invasive edge in primary and secondary oral squamous cell carcinoma: An independent prognostic marker: A retrospective study


1 Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Private Dental Practitioner, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Head and Neck Oncology, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Narayana Health, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Afreen Nadaf
Beigh Manzil, 117, Lal Nagar, Chanapora, Srinagar - 190 015, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.185931

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Background and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common head and neck carcinomas and corresponds to 95% of all oral cancers with an increasing morbidity and mortality. Its prognosis is affected by several clinicopathologic factors, one of which is pattern of invasion (POI). The histological features of OSCC may differ widely, but there is general agreement that the most useful prognostic information can be deduced from the invasive front of the tumor. In this retrospective study, our aim was to compare the POI, the status of connective tissue and the status of inflammation at the tumor–host interface in primary and recurrent (secondary) OSCC and test the validity of POI, to serve as a potential marker to assess the prognosis of the patient. Materials and Methods: Differentiation of tumors, POI, status of connective tissue and inflammation was assessed in 168 cases of primary and recurrent cases of OSCC. Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance and P< 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Our study showed that majority of the primary and secondary tumors were well differentiated, 117 [95.9%] and 34 [73.9%], respectively. Predominant POI in the primary and secondary tumor group was Pattern II and least was Pattern V. Worst pattern in primary tumor and highest distribution was seen for Pattern III (53.3%), and least for Pattern V (0.00%). In secondary tumors, the predominant worst pattern was Pattern IV (50.0%) and least distribution was seen for Pattern I (0.00%). Connective tissue status for both primary and secondary tumors showed the predominance of loose type (85.2% and 79.2%) and least was variable type (0.8% and 0.6%), respectively. Status of inflammation in the primary tumor group showed a predominance of moderate grade of inflammation (50.0%) and very mild grade of inflammation (6.6%) was the least type. In the secondary tumor group, moderate grade (43.5%) of inflammation was predominant and very mild grade (5.4%) was the least. All the parameters showed a statistically significant difference on the application of Fisher's exact test between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that POI could serve as an individual prognostic marker irrespective of the histologic differentiation of tumor. Tumor desmoplasia could be considered as an important reflection of the tumor-host interaction, especially in aggressive cancers. Host immune defense, especially tumor infiltrating lymphocytes must be noted as critical factors related to survival rate in OSCC patients. Assessment of mentioned parameters may lead to sound prognostic assessment and appropriate treatment planning thus reducing the possibility of recurrence or relapse. Hence, the parameters evaluated in our study could serve as independent or interdependent prognostic markers.


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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007