REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES
|Year : 2006 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 40-42
Review of scientific articles
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Sriram G. Review of scientific articles. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2006;10:40-2
| Proinflammatory cytokine levels in saliva of (erosive)oral lichen planus|| |
ORAL DISEASES 2006,12,112-116
Proinflammatory cytokines like, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-1-alpha (IL-l α), IL-6, and IL-8 play a major role in the pathogenesis, progression, and regression of oral lichen planus. These proinflammatory cytokines are present in saliva and can be measured.
In this study, the levels of TNFα, IL- I α, IL-6, and IL-8 in whole unstimulated saliva (WUS) before and after treatment of (erosive) oral lichen planus with 0.1% dexamethasone oral rinse for 6 weeks are measured. Also the levels of these cytokines were correlated with visual analog scale (VAS) for symptoms.
This study has shown that following the dexamethasone treatment, the levels of TNFα, IL-lα, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased significantly, and IL-1 α and IL-8 were detected at a level without a statistically significant difference from controls. VAS value was decreased significantly and was found to significantly correlate with the decrease in IL-1 α and IL-8 levels.
This preliminary study indicates that salivary analysis of various proinflammatory cytokines may be applied to monitoring the therapeutic response of oral lichen planus.
| Increased mitochondrial DNA content in saliva associated with head and neck cancer|| |
CLIN CANCER RES 2005, 11; 2486-2491
Mitochondria are an important biological source and target of reactive oxygen species and free radicals and are sensitive to environmental mutagens, including tobacco smoke. Mitochondrial alterations have long been suspected as contributes to carcinogenesis. Mitochondrial genomic mutations have been found in HNSCC. It is possible that the increase in content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be a compensatory response for the decline in respiratory function.
Recently, mtDNA content was identified to be altered in aging and smoking-associated lung tissue. The authors have hypothesized that elevation in salivary mtDNA associated with development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is independent of other factors that may contribute to mtDNA increase. To test the same, the saliva obtained by oral rinse from 94 HNSCC patients and 656 controls were subjected to quantitative PCR for normalized Cox I and Cox II genes.
Mean content levels of Cox I and Cox II in saliva samples were significantly higher in HNSCC patients compared with normal control's saliva. Univariate regression model showed that age, HNSCC diagnosis, and smoking were significantly associated with increased mtDNA. Overall, increasing age was significantly associated with higher levels of mtDNA.
The mtDNA content greatly increased in the saliva of never-smoker HNSCC patients when compared with that of normal control but found no significant difference in the current-smokers saliva between saliva from current smoker HNSCC patients and current smokers in the control group. Neither ethanol intake nor gender was independently associated with mtDNA content.
To assess the alteration of mtDNA content on tumor stage, the relative content of Cox I and Cox II in saliva from the early stage (stages I and II) versus advanced stage (stages III and IV) HNSCC were examined. The results showed a significantly increased mtDNA content in the saliva with advanced stage.
The association of elevated salivary mtDNA content with advanced stage HNSCC, as well as the correlation of increased salivary mtDNA with increased mtDNA in individual primary tumors also supports the concept that this is a reflection of mtDNA alteration in cells shed from primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract.
Further investigation may elucidate the timing of mtDNA alteration in HNSCC carcinogenesis and provide a mechanism for this increase in smoking and nonsmoking related HNSCC.
| Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 for Treatment of Oral Cancer in Mice|| |
OLIN CANCER RES 2005,11;3109-3116
The use of oncolytic viruses as therapy for cancers, including oral cancer, has received much attention lately, with both HSV 1 and adenoviruses having been proposed as candidates for clinical use. Because HSV is naturally toxic to cells, its spread through a tumor might be expected to eliminate the tumor very effectively. One tumor type that might benefit from this is squamous cell cancer of the mouth, which arises from the mucous membrane that is the natural host for HSV 1. Although the growth of experimental oral cancers can be inhibited by infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), the effect is incomplete.
In a previous study with the AT 84 mouse model, the authors found that wild-type HSV 1 was rapidly eliminated from the tumors, and although the growth of the tumor was reduced while the virus was present, it resumed after the virus was lost. The injection of a second dose of virus gave greater inhibition of the tumor, which is consistent with the idea that the concentration of virus in the tumor is an important determinant of its antitumor effect.
To define factors that might limit the effectiveness of the virus, the roles of the innate immune system and the replication status of the tumor cells were examined.
No differences in viral replication or in the effect of virus on the tumor were seen between mice with a lack of T or B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, phagocytic spleen cells, or complement. The virus did not replicate significantly more in tumors that were maintained as explants.
HSV 1 was seen to be unable to inhibit tumors when the percentage of cells that are in the S phase is less than around 20%. Because human oral cancers show a percentage of cells that are in the S phase of between 15% and 20%, it seems that the virus would not be expected to be very effective against human oral cancers despite its effectiveness against human oral cancer cell lines. The human tumors with the highest S-phase fraction do tend to be more aggressive, which implies that therapy with HSV 1 might be most likely to be effective in the more aggressive tumors.
The innate immune system thus seemed to have a minimal effect on replication of HSV- 1 when used as an oncolytic virus for oral cancers in mice. Instead, the fraction of cells in the S phase was important. Future improvements of oncolytic therapy for this tumor should probably be directed toward improving the replication of the virus in the tumor cells.
| Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-I Prognostic in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma|| |
CLIN CANCER RES 2005,11; 3257-3264
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) form a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases that are able to degrade connective tissue, among other substrates the basement membrane collagen, which seems to play a key role in invasion and metastasis of SCCs. There are growing amount of data suggesting that circulating MMP-9 or MMP-2 levels could be valuable in assessing prognosis or diagnosing a relapse during follow-up.
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) are known to have at least two different functions. They inhibit the catalytic activity of MMPs and they are also able to act as growth factors. TIMP- 1 plays a role during the activation of MMP-9. It is also able to inactivate the active forms of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. There is discrepancy as to whether TIMP-1 has a role in promoting cancer cell dissemination or whether it inhibits tumor progression and formation of metastases.
In this study, the role of TIMP-1 has been explored in the progression of HNSCC. Both cancer cell-associated and circulating immunoreactive protein of TIMP-1 has been evaluated with respect to whether they may predict survival among these patients. The circulating pretreatment TIMP-1 levels were also correlated to TIMP1 immunohistochemical staining in the corresponding primary tumor.
A positive correlation was found between the size of the primary tumor (T) and the circulating TIMP- 1 level or the positive immunoreactions of TIMP- 1 in tumor. The 5-year cause-specific survival was significantly lower in patients presenting with a high serum TIMP-1 level than in those with a low level of TIMP-1. They also had an unfavorable 5-year relapse-free survival rate. Similarly, the expression of TIMP-1 in tumor was prognostic for shortened survival, the 5-year cumulative relapse-free survival being 42% in patients with a TIMP- 1 positive tumor versus 75% in cases with a negative tumor. Tissue TIMP-1 positivity also seemed to be associated with the cause-specific survival and to be connected with later lymph node or hematogenic relapses.
This study shows for the first time that both circulating and tissue TIMP-1 immunoreactive protein predicts the clinical course and dissemination in HNSCC, suggesting that TIMP-1 might be related to both tumor growth and metastasis in HNSCC.
| Quantitative Analysis of Architecture of the Epithelial Lining in Radicular Cysts and Odontogenic Keratocysts|| |
HEAD & FACE MEDICINE 2006,2:4
While some authors have reported significant differences between solitary and BCNS OKCs, the possibility of discrimination at a statistical level for diagnostic (classification) purposes has not been addressed to provide a definitive answer. Therefore, in this paper, the architectural differences 1) between two main types of odontogenic cysts: radicular cysts and keratocysts, and 2) between the solitary and BCN syndrome keratocysts subtypes were analysed.
This was investigated by means of image processing techniques applied to digitized histological images of cysts using a systematic spatial discretisation of the cellular elements in the epithelial lining.
Radicular cysts were found to have on average more layers and their number varies more than in OKCs. Furthermore, the discrimination rate achieved between OKCs and radicular cysts samples (95%) was found to be higher than other previously published reports. At the same time, rates for the discrimination between the two OKCs subtypes, were not as high (around 60%), making them not suitable for detection of a BCNS case based on the cyst epithelial architecture alone.
The measures of epithelial architecture presented can quantify in an unbiased manner the morphological characteristics of epithelias cyst linings. These measures provide an extra level of hierarchical description of the tissue make up that individual cell morphology alone cannot provide. Such analytical approach allows a high discrimination between radicular and odontogenic keratocyst linings. However the differences between solitary and syndromic keratocysts do not allow discrimination of the syndrome based solely on the histological appearance of the tissues.
| CD110 Expression in Stromal Cells of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical and Pathologic Correlation|| |
ORAL DISEASES 2006,12; 301-304
CD10 is expressed on the majority of follicle-centre lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphomas. CD10 has also been shown to be present in a variety of other neoplasms.
This study was aimed at correlation of CD 10 and several parameters: age, tumor size, presence of lymph node metastases, clinic stage, histologic grading, presence of local recurrences.
Highly significant correlations were found with the lymph node status, the presence of local recurrences and histologic grading. The presence of CD10-positive cells was not correlated with the age of patients, tumor size and clinic stage. The results of the study show that in oral squamous cell carcinoma CD10 positivity is an indicator of worse prognosis. Another strong correlation was found with the presence of local recurrences. Also the histologic grade was significantly correlated with the CD 10 positivity.
The results point to the fact that CD10 expression can, perhaps, have an important role in tumor invasion, probably facilitating the occurrence of metastases.