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REVIEW ARTICLES
Oral lichen planus: An update on pathogenesis and treatment
N Lavanya, P Jayanthi, Umadevi K Rao, K Ranganathan
May-August 2011, 15(2):127-132
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.84474  
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the mucus membrane of the oral cavity. It is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease in which the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells trigger apoptosis of the basal cells of the oral epithelium. Several antigen-specific and nonspecific inflammatory mechanisms have been put forward to explain the accumulation and homing of CD8+ T cells subepithelially and the subsequent keratinocyte apoptosis. A wide spectrum of treatment modalities is available, from topical corticosteroids to laser ablation of the lesion. In this review, we discuss the various concepts in the pathogenesis and current treatment modalities of OLP.
  20 17,048 2,799
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
L Preeti, KT Magesh, K Rajkumar, Raghavendhar Karthik
September-December 2011, 15(3):252-256
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86669  
Recurrent aphthous ulcers are common painful mucosal conditions affecting the oral cavity. Despite their high prevalence, etiopathogenesis remains unclear. This review article summarizes the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and recent trends in the management of recurrent apthous stomatitis.
  17 10,522 1,827
Cancer cachexia
Raghu Dhanapal, TR Saraswathi, N Govind Rajkumar
September-December 2011, 15(3):257-260
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86670  
Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.
  14 3,418 472
REVIEW ARTICLES - ETIOPATHOGENESIS
Oral pyogenic granuloma: Various concepts of etiopathogenesis
Reet Kamal, Parveen Dahiya, Abhiney Puri
January-April 2012, 16(1):79-82
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.92978  
Pyogenic granuloma or granuloma pyogenicum is a well-known oral lesion. The name pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva commonly. Extragingivally, it can occur on the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, and the like. A history of trauma is common in such sites. The etiology of the lesion is not known, though it was originally believed to be a botryomycotic infection. It is theorized that pyogenic granuloma possibly originates as a response of tissues to minor trauma and/or chronic irritation, thus opening a pathway for invasion of nonspecific microorganisms, although microorganisms are seldom demonstrated within the lesion. Pathogenesis of pyogenic granuloma is still debatable. Medline and PubMed databases were searched under the following key terms: Pathogenesis of oral pyogenic granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, and oral pyogenic granuloma. This search was limited to articles on human/animal studies which were published in English language. After reviewing the searched articles, the relevant articles were selected for the present review. Through this article, we have tried to summarize and present all the concepts of pathogenesis related to this most common and most mysterious oral lesion.
  12 6,989 1,728
CASE REPORTS
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (angiocentric T-cell lymphoma): A review about the terminology
Rashmi S Metgud, Jitendra J Doshi, Sarang Gaurkhede, Ravindra Dongre, Ravindra Karle
January-April 2011, 15(1):96-100
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.80016  PMID:21731288
Extranodal NK / T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm, which in the past has been grouped with a variety of granulomatous diseases. It is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's type characterized clinically by aggressive, nonrelenting destruction of the midline structures of the palate and nasal fossa. Despite the malignant clinical course, histological diagnosis can be difficult because of extensive tissue necrosis and multiple biopsies that are often required and has an ominous prognosis, as the average survival rate is between 6 and 25 months as reported with a large number of Asian studies. Several American and European studies have shown similar results. This is the case report of a 60-year-old male patient who presented with nasal obstruction and foul smelling, ulcerative lesion over the palate of 6 months duration, which had been treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories without success. After performing a number of diagnostic tests, it was found histologically and confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis that the patient had an ENKL, nasal type (also known as angiocentric T-cell lymphoma).
  10 4,032 270
Odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla: A report of a rare case and review of the literature
Sasidhar Singaraju, Sangeetha P Wanjari, Rajkumar N Parwani
January-June 2010, 14(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.64305  PMID:21180454
Odontogenic myxoma represents an uncommon benign neoplasm comprising of 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. This article presents a rare case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla of a 7-year-old male patient with a brief review of the pathogenesis, clinical, radiological, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of odontogenic myxoma.
  7 4,888 734
REVIEW ARTICLES - STEM CELLS/GENETICS
A comprehensive review of the genetic basis of cleft lip and palate
Sarvraj Singh Kohli, Virinder Singh Kohli
January-April 2012, 16(1):64-72
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.92976  
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are birth defects that affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth. CLP has a multifactorial etiology, comprising both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the recent data on the etiology of cleft lip and palate. We conducted a search of the MEDLINE database (Entrez PubMed) from January 1986 to December 2010 using the key words: 'cleft lip,' 'cleft palate,' 'etiology,' and 'genetics.' The etiology of CLP seems complex, with genetics playing a major role. Several genes causing syndromic CLP have been discovered. Three of them-T-box transcription factor-22 (TBX22), poliovirus receptor-like-1 (PVRL1), and interferon regulatory factor-6 (IRF6)-are responsible for causing X-linked cleft palate, cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome, and Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes, respectively; they are also implicated in nonsyndromic CLP. The nature and functions of these genes vary widely, illustrating the high vulnerability within the craniofacial developmental pathways. The etiological complexity of nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate is also exemplified by the large number of candidate genes and loci. To conclude, although the etiology of nonsyndromic CLP is still largely unknown, mutations in candidate genes have been identified in a small proportion of cases. Determining the relative risk of CLP on the basis of genetic background and environmental influence (including smoking, alcohol use, and dietary factors) will be useful for genetic counseling and the development of future preventive measures.
  7 4,627 686
CASE REPORTS
Necrotizing sialometaplasia of tongue
Tanu Randhawa, Ipe Varghese, PM Shameena, S Sudha, Resmi G Nair
January-June 2009, 13(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.48755  PMID:21886996
Necrotizing sialometaplasia, is a benign inflammatory lesion primarily involving the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. The lesion often presents itself as a deep-seated palatal ulcer with clinical and histological features similar to those of a malignant neoplasm. Here we report a case of necrotizing sialometaplasia in a 40-year-old female, present on the lateral border of the tongue, mimicking squamous cell carcinoma, clinically. A correct diagnosis to avoid mutilant surgical treatments is essential, considering that it is a self-limiting disease.
  6 2,717 496
Bilateral maxillary brown tumors in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: Report of a rare entity and review of literature
N Soundarya, P Sharada, Nilima Prakash, GL Pradeep
January-April 2011, 15(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.80027  PMID:21731279
Brown tumors are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteoclastic activity and peritrabecular fibrosis due to hyperparathyroidism, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. The classical "brown tumor" is commonly seen in ends of long bones, the pelvis and ribs. Facial involvement is rare and, when present, usually involves the mandible. We report a case of 60-year-old male with a rare initial presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral maxillary brown tumors. The present case represents the third report of the bilateral maxillary brown tumors in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Differential diagnosis is important for the right treatment choice. It should exclude other giant cell lesions that affect the maxillae.
  6 4,112 381
Bilateral dentigerous cyst in a non-syndromic patient: Report of an unusual case with review of the literature
Avinash Tamgadge, Sandhya Tamgadge, Daivat Bhatt, Sudhir Bhalerao, Treville Pereira, Mukul Padhye
January-April 2011, 15(1):91-95
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.80017  PMID:21731287
Dentigerous cysts are the most common developmental cysts of the jaws, most frequently associated with impacted mandibular third molar teeth and impacted canines. Bilateral dentigerous cysts are rare and occur typically in association with a developmental syndrome. The occurrence of bilateral dentigerous cysts is rare and, to date, only 21 cases have been reported in literature till 2009. Here, we report a case of bilateral dentigerous cysts in maxillae of non-syndromic 10-year-old patient with brief review of literature.
  6 5,979 466
CASE REPORTS - ODONTOGENIC PATHOLOGIES
"Hybrid" lesion of the maxilla
S Sankaranarayanan, S Srinivas, P Sivakumar, R Sudhakar, S Elangovan
September-December 2011, 15(3):299-302
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86693  
Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign but aggressive fibroosseous lesion that affects the craniofacial skeleton. Their distinct clinical and histopathological features warrant the lesion to be considered as a separate entity from other fibro-osseous group of lesions such as fibrous dysplasia and cemento ossifying fibroma. Concomitant development of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst may rarely occur, which makes the lesion more aggressive and difficult to treat. We report a case of a 6 year old girl who was diagnosed with aneurysmal bone cyst during her earlier presentation at a private hospital and was treated for the same. The lesion recurred within 6 months. The second incisional biopsy specimen revealed features of trabecular variant of juvenile ossifying fibroma along with areas of aneurysmal bone cyst.
  6 2,675 414
CASE REPORTS - SOFT TISSUE/ BONE TUMORS
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: A rare entity
P Venkat Baghirath, J Vijay Kumar, B Hari Vinay
September-December 2011, 15(3):335-339
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86714  
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an uncommon malignant salivary gland tumor accounting for about 1% of all intra-oral salivary gland tumors. Microscopic diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma may be challenging because of the spectrum of features which frequently overlaps with the other salivary gland tumors that contain clear cells, and thus it may be a diagnosis of exclusion. Here we, report a case of HCCC in a 36 years old female with detailed histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical discussion.
  6 2,221 278
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Proliferation and apoptosis markers in oral submucous fibrosis
K Ranganathan, R Kavitha
May-August 2011, 15(2):148-153
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.84478  
Background: Premalignant/potentially malignant-oral lesions and conditions such as oral submucous fibrosis are known to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation is often associated with changes at the genetic level that in turn is reflected by the altered expression of proteins related to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aim: To evaluate the expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: To assess the immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in 50 cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and ten each of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Results: The labeling indices (LI) of OSF and OSCC were comparable for p53 and Ki67.The p53 LI ranged from 7.9 to 71.9 in OSF and 65.2 to 85.9 in OSCC, and for Ki67 it ranged from 4.39 to 43.23, 18.35 to 42.33, respectively. Conclusion: The p53, Ki67, and bax profiles of OSF and OSCC were altered compared to the normal and these markers could be used as surrogate markers of malignant transformation in OSF.
  6 4,131 924
A study to evaluate the efficacy of xylene-free hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure as compared to the conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining: An experimental study
Madhuri R Ankle, Priya S Joshi
May-August 2011, 15(2):161-167
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.84482  
Context: Use of diluted dish washing solution (DWS) has been experimented successfully as a substitute for xylene to deparaffinize tissue sections during hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining. Aims: (1) Test the hypothesis that xylene- and methanol-free sections (XMF) deparaffinized with diluted DWS are better than or at par with conventional H and E sections. (2) To compare the efficacy of xylene-free sections with the conventional H and E sections. Settings and Design: Single blinded experimental study. Materials and Methods: Sixty paraffin blocks were considered. One section was stained with conventional H and E method (Group A) and the other with XMF H and E (Group B). Slides were scored for parameters; nuclear staining, cytoplasmic staining (adequate = score1, inadequate = score0), uniformity, clarity, crispness (present = score1, absent = score0). Score >/= 2 was inadequate for diagnosis and 3-5 was adequate for diagnosis. Statistical analysis used: Z test. Results: Adequate nuclear staining, 96.66% sections in group A and 98.33% in Group B (Z = 0.59, P>0.05); adequate cytoplasmic staining, 93.33% in group A and 83.33% in Group B (Z = 1.97, P<0.05); uniform staining, 70% in group A, 50% in group B (Z = 1.94, P<0.05), clarity present in 85% of group A, 88.33% of group B sections (Z = 0.27, P>0.05), crisp staining in 76.66% in group A and 83.33% in Group B (Z = 1.98, P<0.05), 88.33% Group A sections stained adequately for diagnosis as compared with 90% in Group B (Z = 0.17, P>0.05). Conclusion: Xylene- and methanol-free H and E staining is a better alternative to the conventional H and E staining procedure.
  6 5,829 640
Clinico-epidemiological profile of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions among areca nut, tobacco and alcohol users in Eastern India: A hospital based study
Jay Gopal Ray, Madhurima Ganguly, BH Sripathi Rao, Sanjit Mukherjee, Basudev Mahato, Keya Chaudhuri
January-April 2013, 17(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.110720  PMID:23798829
Context: With an increase in the abuse of various oral habitual products in India over the past few decades; the incidence of oral potentially malignant conditions as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rates have also increased. No recent study has been conducted reporting the scenario of oral cancer and potentially malignant conditions in Eastern India (specifically Kolkata). Aims: The present study was conducted at Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College, Kolkata during 2010-2011 to find a possible correlation between the effects of the different oral habits, age, sex and the different types of oral mucosal lesions among patients reported to the hospital. This study also enabled us to see the predilection of the various histopathological stages of the lesions for different sites of the oral cavity. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 698 patients having either oral potentially malignant or malignant lesion. The control group consisted of 948 patients who had reported to the hospital for different oral/dental problems and had the habit of tobacco, areca nut and/or alcohol usage for at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis : The unadjusted odds ratio, the 95% confidence interval, and the P value were calculated to correlate patients with/without different kinds of habit and having/not having various kinds of oral lesions. Results: Our study shows that for males having the habit of taking smokeless tobacco or mixed habit poses the highest risk for developing SCC. For females, significant risk of developing SCC was found in patients habituated to processed areca nut chewing. Conclusion: This study presents probably for the first time in recent years the occurrence of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions amongst patients having deleterious habits in a hospital based population of Kolkata.
  6 4,694 564
Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers
Thavarajah Rooban, KM Vidya, Elizabeth Joshua, Anita Rao, Shanthi Ranganathan, Umadevi K Rao, K Ranganathan
January-April 2011, 15(1):14-21
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.80032  PMID:21731272
Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.
  6 5,026 1,670
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - SYSTEMIC DISEASES
Bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of jaw in breast cancer patients: A systematic review
BR Varun, TT Sivakumar, Bindu J Nair, Anna P Joseph
May-August 2012, 16(2):210-214
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.98893  
Background: Bisphosphonate therapy is widely used for the treatment of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of jaw (BONJ) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted to search and evaluate all the articles that contained original data on the prevalence of BONJ in breast cancer patients from the year 2003-2009. Pubmed search terms used were bisphosphonate, osteonecrosis, breast cancer and jaw. Eleven publications that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were chosen for the study. Case reports and reviews were excluded from the analysis based on assessing the title and abstract. Results: Of the 2490 breast cancer patients, 69 developed BONJ with the overall prevalence rate of 2.8%. All the patients with BONJ had received zoledronate or pamidronate, either alone or in combinations. Conclusion: BONJ is a significant complication occurring in 2.8% of the breast cancer patients receiving bisphosphonates for metastatic bone disease. It is very important to identify the trigger factors associated with BONJ and also to establish guidelines for the prevention and effective treatment of this condition.
  6 3,129 268
REVIEW ARTICLES
Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures
Reena Kandyala, Sumanth Phani C Raghavendra, Saraswathi T Rajasekharan
January-June 2010, 14(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.64299  PMID:21180450
Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon known for its wide usage in tissue processing, staining and cover slipping in the histology laboratory. The hazards of xylene are well documented, making it a potential occupational hazard for the histopathological technicians. As every other profession became cautious of the occupational hazards, the very speciality that identifies the illnesses became one of the last to become aware and remedy its own hazards. This review article aims to discuss the toxicity of xylene and safety measures to counteract the hazards and enlists the pros and cons of using various substitutes that claim to be much safer, better and faster.
  6 10,720 1,298
REVIEW ARTICLES - LAB
Toluidine blue: A review of its chemistry and clinical utility
Gokul Sridharan, Akhil A Shankar
May-August 2012, 16(2):251-255
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.99081  
Toluidine blue is a basic thiazine metachromatic dye with high affinity for acidic tissue components, thereby staining tissues rich in DNA and RNA. It has found wide applications both as vital staining in living tissues and as a special stain owing to its metachromatic property. Toluidine blue has been used in vivo to identify dysplasia and carcinoma of the oral cavity. Use of toluidine blue in tissue sections is done with the aim to highlight components, such as mast cells granules, mucins, and cartilage. This article provides an overview on chemistry, technique, and the various applications of toluidine blue.
  6 7,261 1,279
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS - ODONTOGENIC PATHOLOGY
Benign cementoblastoma
Leena S Sankari, K Ramakrishnan
September-December 2011, 15(3):358-360
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86725  
Benign cementoblastoma is a rare odontogenic tumor characterized by the formation of a mass of cementum or cementum-like tissue attached to the roots of a tooth. Cementoblastoma are distinctive but relatively uncommon tumors. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of a case of benign cementoblastoma are presented in this paper along with a brief review of the literature.
  6 3,988 424
CASE REPORTS
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome
Deepti Singh Jawa, Keya Sircar, Rani Somani, Neeraj Grover, Shipra Jaidka, Sanjeet Singh
July-December 2009, 13(2):89-92
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.57677  PMID:21887009
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presence of multiple odontogenic keratocysts along with various cutaneous, dental, osseous, ophthalmic, neurological, and sex organ abnormalities. Early diagnosis is essential as it may progress to aggressive basal cell carcinomas and neoplasias. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been reported from India. We report here one such patient, diagnosed at a rural hospital.
  5 3,654 631
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with dentigerous cyst of the maxillary antrum: A rare entity
Simarpreet V Sandhu, Ramandeep S Narang, Manveen Jawanda, Sachin Rai
January-June 2010, 14(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.64308  PMID:21180455
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin composed of odontogenic epithelium in a variety of histoarchitectural patterns. Most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. However, AOT of the maxillary antrum is extremely rare. A 25-year-old female presented with a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the maxillary antrum, which was clinically diagnosed as dentigerous cyst. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a dentigerous cyst. Very few cases of AOT associated with dentigerous cyst have been reported till date. A case of gigantic AOT that occupied the maxillary sinus and associated with dentigerous cyst is described. Also, an attempt has been made to determine whether the AOT derived from the dentigerous cyst could represent a distinct hybrid variety.
  5 4,056 737
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - INFECTIONS
Oropharyngeal candidosis relative frequency in radiotherapy patient for head and neck cancer
Hema Suryawanshi, Sindhu M Ganvir, Vinay K Hazarey, Varsha S Wanjare
January-April 2012, 16(1):31-37
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.92970  
Background: Radiation given during treatment of oral and pharyngeal malignancy frequently causes alteration of the oral environment predisposing to the colonization of the oral mucosa by yeast species most frequently Candida. Objective: Thus, this study was undertaken in 107 patients to find out association between radiation therapy and frequency of oropharyngeal candidosis, to quantitate colony forming units (CFUs) to identify Candida at species level and to check the incidence of serotype A and B in C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The study was done on patients suffering from oropharyngeal cancer who were advised radiotherapy. The oral rinse collection method was used to collect the sample. Sabourauds Dextrose Agar (SDA) was used as primary culture media and subsequently speciation was done using standard techniques. The strains of C. albicans were serotyped employing the method described by Hansclever and Mitchell (1961, J Bacteriol 1961;82:570-3). Results: 26.16% patients were mycologically positive for candida before radiotherapy with CFUs 100. 14 ± 59.11 that increased to 60.74% patients during radiotherapy with an increase in CFUs to 490.15 ± 207.97. Clinically, grading of mucositis was done and also individual signs and symptoms were noted in each patient. The occurrence of erythmatous lesions, ulceration, and xerostomia were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently encountered species with higher prevalence of serotype A suggesting higher virulent species. Conclusion: It is proposed that in such patients taking radiotherapy prophylactic antifungal treatment should be given specially in patients showing development of oral mucosal lesions such as erythmatous lesions, ulcerations, and complaining about dryness of mouth, that is, xerostomia irrespective of presence or absence of clinical oral candidosis.
  5 4,713 326
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - ONCOLOGY
Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in oral tumorigenesis
Madhusudan Astekar, Asha Joshi, Gayathri Ramesh, Rashmi Metgud
January-April 2012, 16(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.92968  
Context: Significant increase in vascularity occurs during the transition from normal oral mucosa, through differing degrees of dysplasia, to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Aims: To evaluate microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral tumorigenesis and correlate it with the clinicopathological characteristics. Settings and Design: VEGF expression and MVD were quantified immunohistochemically using anti-VEGF and anti-CD34 antibody. Materials and Methods: For this study we used a total of 60 archival specimens, including 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM), 7 mild epithelial dysplasia (Mild ED), 8 moderate epithelial dysplasia (Mod ED), 5 severe epithelial dysplasia (SED), 14 well-differentiated SCC, 11 moderately-differentiated SCC, and 5 poorly-differentiated SCC. VEGF expression was assessed in relation to the localization, intensity, and area of the immunohistochemically stained cells. MVD was evaluated using the Image-Pro® Plus software. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA (F test) was carried out for comparing the parameters for multiple groups such as different histopathological grades of dysplasia and carcinoma. Comparison between groups was carried out using the Student's 't' test. Correlations between VEGF score and MVD were estimated using the Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation. Results: VEGF and MVD appeared to increase with disease progression and were statistically higher in oral SCC than in epithelial dysplasia and normal buccal mucosa. There was significant correlation between VEGF expression and MVD. Conclusions: These findings indicate that VEGF expression is upregulated during head and neck tumorigenesis.
  5 2,275 405
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Candida and calcofluor white: Study in precancer and cancer
Rashmi Santosh Kumar, SM Ganvir, VK Hazarey
January-June 2009, 13(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.44575  PMID:21886989
Background: The interest in oral candidosis has waxed and waned from the period of Hippocrates. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has certainly bolstered these figures on oral candidosis, with diabetes and oral cancer being no exception. A need for rapid detection of Candida is made possible by the use of Calcofluor - White (CFW) stain when examined under a fluorescence microscope. The present study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of CFW is compared to Gram stain and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) in detection of Candida in oral precancer and cancer. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of patients with precancer (n=45), cancer (n=45), and control group (n=45). Presence of Candida was confirmed by culture inoculation along with a germ tube and carbohydrate fermentation test. The cytopathological smears were analyzed by papanicolaou - CFW and Gram staining, whereas, tissue sections were stained by PAS and CFW staining. Results: Candida albicans was the predominant species identified. A highly significant association of Candida was seen more often in cancer than in precancer. Both in cytology and histopathology Candida detection by CFW was higher. In precancer it was 48.88% in smears and 40% in tissue sections, whereas, in cancer 60% in smears and 55.55% in histopathology. Conclusion: Among the various diagnostic tools used in the present study, the use of CFW is seen to be a simple, effective, rapid, and reliable method, both in cytopathology and histopathology.
  4 6,706 1,356
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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007