Year : 2003 | Volume
: 7 | Issue : 2 | Page : 44--45
Estimation of serum antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis: A biochemical study
AK Uikey1, VK Hazarey1, SM Vaidhya2,
1 Department of Oral and Maxillo Facial Pathology and Microbiology, GDCH, Nagpur, India
2 Professor of Biochemistry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, India
V K Hazarey
Department of OMFPM, GDCH, Nagpur 63
The aim of the present study was to estimate the serum status of antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) which is a precancerous condition common in Indian subcontinent. A total of sixty subjects were included in the study comprising of 30 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 30 healthy controls. The haemolysate levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPX) were estimated using Ciba corning express plus autoanalyzer for spectrometry. In OSF, serum antioxidant enzyme levels were found to be decreased (mean SOD 86.63±20.36 and mean GPX 1.50±0.30 U/ml) compared to the control group (mean SOD 127.1±18.14 and mean GPX 2.71±0.43 U/ml). The results suggest that low values of SOD and GPX may be associated with the development of carcinoma in oral submucous fibrosis.
|How to cite this article:|
Uikey A K, Hazarey V K, Vaidhya S M. Estimation of serum antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis: A biochemical study.J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2003;7:44-45
|How to cite this URL:|
Uikey A K, Hazarey V K, Vaidhya S M. Estimation of serum antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis: A biochemical study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol [serial online] 2003 [cited 2020 Jan 23 ];7:44-45
Available from: http://www.jomfp.in/text.asp?2003/7/2/44/40936
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic disease, affecting the oral cavity. After prolonged contact with areca nut, alteration of the oral mucosa takes place leading to vesicle formation, inflammatory reaction and fibroelastic changes in the lamina propria with epithelial atrophy. The fibrosis of underlying lamina propria and submucosa ultimately converts the mucosa stiff and leathery  .
A number of compounds and enzymes may function to protect cellular components from oxidative damages. The major antioxidant defense system consisting of SOD and GPX appears to be responsible for scavenging free radicals and nascent oxygen , .
In normal cells there is an intricate pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance. In oxidative stress, this balance shifts towards pro-oxidants. If the oxidant species production is increased with concomitant prolonged and massive stress, it can result in serious cell damage. Extensive studies with biologic materials have shown clearly that the reactive free radicals are able to produce chemical modifications in the cells and damage the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleotides. To overcome these consequences, cells have antioxidant defense systems which scavenge the free oxygen radicals and suppress free radical chain and lipid peroxidation.
Antioxidants play an important role in carcinogenesis. Given the established precancerous nature of oral sub mucous fibrosis, the present study was undertaken to estimate the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in blood samples of patients diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis.
Materials and Methods
Patients were selected by thorough oral examination of patients attending the out -patient department of Government dental college and hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study group comprised of patients diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis and who have not received any previous treatment. Control group patients were age and sex matched [Table 1] and were not having the habit of tobacco and areca nut chewing or smoking.
Venous blood samples were collected using heparin as an anticoagulant for the estimation of SOD and GPX. 5ml of whole blood was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3000 rpm, plasma was separated and erythrocytes were washed four times with 3ml of 0.9% NaCl solution, and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3000 rpm after each wash.
Washed and centrifuged erythrocytes were made up to 2.0 ml with cold redistilled water and mixed and left to stand at 4° C for 15 minutes. The haemolysate was diluted with 0.01 mmol/liter phosphate buffer pH 7.0, so that the 5 fold inhibition was between 30% and 60%. SOD estimation was based on the method of Suttle et al where as glutathione peroxidase was estimated by the method of Paglia and Valentine  . Both the enzymes SOD & GPX were determined by Ransel anti-oxidant enzyme kit provided by Randox and samples were processed on Ciba corning express plus autoanalyzer for spectrometry.
The normal range of SOD was 165 to 240 units/ml and GPX was 2.65 to 4.80 U/ml. The study group of OSMF-patients had reduced levels of both GPX and SOD [Table 2]. Hence significant difference was noted between the mean antioxidant levels in the serum analysis of study and control group patients.
Oral submucous fibrosis, because of its emerging epidemic in India with 0.2% to 0.5% population affected with this disease is known as India's disease ,, .Many treatment modalities and biochemical analyses have been tried to control this disease, but none have provided satisfactory results. Knowledge about metabolic alterations regarding free radicals, antioxidant status and therapeutic control is insufficient and also the information regarding the biochemical alteration in human system is scanty. Present study adds some knowledge regarding antioxidant enzymes related to OSF.
Results comparable to our study were observed on Indian subjects by Balasubramaniyan  and Sabitha et al  .
The results of our study and the findings by Alexander et al  in their study on tumour cells indicate low SOD activity. The decreased levels of GPX and SOD in oral submucous fibrosis patients as observed by us may be correlated with the precancerous potential of oral submucous fibrosis.
Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to validate our findings. If our results are confirmed, trials with antioxidant agents may be helpful in preventing the development of carcinoma in oral submucous fibrosis.
The study showed that the mean haemolysate levels of both the antioxidant enzymes were decreased in the patients of OSF compared to control healthy volunteers. This may prove as an useful parameter for further studies and research on antioxidants and its use in potentially malignant lesions of the oral cavity.
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