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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 445-452
Caspase-3 expression in normal oral epithelium, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma


1 Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Division of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Veeran Veeravarmal
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.190947

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Context: The epithelium atrophy, as the oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) progresses, is believed to be an after effect of stromal fibrosis, hyalinization, decrease in vascularity and cellularity and is considered as "ischemic atrophy." Due to hypoxia, caspase-3 get activation and subsequent decrease in viable cell count can occur. Aims and Objectives : To determine caspase-3 expression in various grades of OSMF and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to find out whether upregulation of apoptosis is responsible for the epithelial changes in OSMF. Subjects and Methods: The control tissue (15 samples from normal oral mucosa) and study group comprising 97 cases of OSMF of different grades and OSCC associated with OSMF were stained with caspase-3 antibody, and the percentage of positive cells was calculated using ImageJ software. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and  Tukey's honest significance difference test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: There was a nuclear expression of caspase-3 in basal and parabasal layers of normal epithelium. There was cytoplasmic expression of caspase-3 in OSMF without dysplasia, total absence of caspase-3 expression in dysplastic epithelium and in majority cases of OSCC. The caspase-3 percentage was increased in OSMF (0%-53%) when compared with OSCC (0%-8%). The statistical comparison of caspase-3 among normal, OSMF and OSCC patients revealed significant correlation (P < 0.00010). The comparison within different grades of OSMF and between dysplastic and nondysplastic epithelium OSMF also showed significance (P < 0.019). Conclusions: The decreased expression of caspase-3 in disease progression reflects its role in the malignant transformation.


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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007