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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 388-394
Gender differences in oral lesions among persons with HIV disease in Southern India


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India
2 Chief Medical Officer, Y. R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Voluntary Health Services, Taramani, India

Correspondence Address:
Umadevi Krishna Mohan Rao
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 2/102, East Coast Road, Chennai - 60011, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.102492

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Introduction: In India, it is estimated that 2.5 million people are currently living with Human Immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) of which one million are women. Given the occurrence of oral lesions in our population, we studied the patter of these lesions with respect to the role played by gender. Materials and Methods: 3729 consecutive patients seen over a period of 10 years (from 1998 to 2008) attending the YRG CARE (Center for AIDS Research and Education), at Chennai, India constituted the study group. The oral lesions were diagnosed and the findings were entered into a database and analysed using the SPSS package SPSS11. Results: 3724 adult patients (71% males 29% females) were recruited in this study. 95% and 92% of males and females respectively acquired the infection through the heterosexual route. 69% of them presented with at least one oral lesion. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (OC) (18.8% males 10.3% females, P = 0.00) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) (1.2% males 0.4% females, P = 0.023) between gender. The mean CD4 counts in males (n = 1908) was 284.48 ± 222.45 and in females (n = 1087) it was 394.51 ± 274.56. Males had 2.2 times higher risk of getting OC, 3.1 times higher risk of OHL and over all males had 1.58 times of having any oral lesion compared to females. Multivariate logistic regression that the odds of having OC (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.2-2.2, P = 0.001) and OHL (OR = 3.1, 95%CI 1.1-8.9; P = 0.03) were significantly higher for males than for females after controlling for duration of being HIV positive, CD4 count and HAART. 1412 patients had their spouses HIV status also as HIV positive and 769 patients had their spouse HIV status as negative. 858 patients were on HARRT (627 males and 231 females) The partial correlation analysis, done between gender and CD4 counts, when controlling for HAART was r = 0.2028 (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Our study confirms that males had a higher risk of oral lesions, especially OC and OHL, than females. The females in this study had a significantly higher mean CD4 counts than males. This different immunological status of the females compared to males should be taken in to consideration in the evaluation and management of HIV positive patients in our country.


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