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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38-44
Isolation, identification, and carriage of candidal species in PHLAs and their correlation with immunological status in cases with and without HAART


1 Department of Oral Pathology, SIBAR Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Guntur Medical College, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Lalith Prakash Chandra Kantheti
Department of Oral Pathology, SIBAR Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Guntur - 522 509, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.92971

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Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of Candidal colonization, and to isolate and know the Candidal species prevalent in the oral cavity from the oral rinse samples collected from the individuals attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Center (VCCTC) and the antiretro-viral therapy (ART) Center at Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, South India. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 50 HIV negative asymptomatic individuals (Group I); 50 HIV positive individuals (people living with HIV AIDS [PLWHA's]), who are naïve to antiretro-viral therapy (direct walk-in clients of VCCTC) (Group II); and 50 HIV positive individuals with CD4+ count less than 250 and who are started on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) (Group III). Routine mycological tests for the isolation of pure cultures of Candida and also the speciation procedures were done. Results: In the study group, 53 (Group I=11; Group II=23; Group III=19) were culture positive. The prevalence of Candida was comparatively high in the age range between 41-50 years in Group II; 51-60 years, in Group III. A male predominance was observed in the Group I (M:F=16:6) and Group III (M:F=20:18), with a slight female predominance in the Group II (F:M=24:22). The overall culture positivity was 35.3%. Candida albicans was the highest prevalent species (47.17% of the isolates). A comparison of the culture positivity with the CD 4 counts of the study subjects was statistically highly significant. A pair wise comparison of the culture positivity with that of the colony forming units/mL from the subjects showed a high significance between Group I and Group II, and between Group I and Group III. Conclusion: Candidal infections in immuno compromised patients are often severe, rapidly progressive, and difficult to treat and such patients have a definitive risk of developing oral candidiasis wherein, even the members of the normal oral flora may become pathogenic. Candida albicans is the common isolate. Nonalbicans species are also emerging as opportunistic pathogens. In view of this changing pattern, it is strongly recommended that species identification can help in much better treatment strategies, and thus, gain a good control over the disease. The findings of this study would be helpful in any further studies which, if done prospectively on a larger cohort, can be confirmatory.


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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007